The following references are ones I have found useful for information on budget analysis, in studying what analysts do, and for improving skills. Sources are identified for Federal instructions and definitions, organizations related to budgeting, and recommended books.

Instructions and Guidance:

The basic reference is the Principles of Federal Appropriations Law, also known as the Red Book, is a multi-volume treatise concerning federal fiscal law, issued by the Government Accountability Office (GAO).  It is the definitive source for final word on all matters related to budgeting and use of financial resources within the Federal government.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the source of all instructions to agencies on how to formulate and execute their budgets and on many other management matters.  The President’s formal budget submission can be found here, as well as the OMB directives related to management and budget
The current version of OMB Circular A–11, Transmittal Memorandum #89—6/30/15 (which guided the formulation of the FY 2017 budget) can be found here.  All OMB Circulars can also be found at this site.  OMB memoranda, another source of instructions are here as well, as is other guidance.  The Office of Federal Financial Management’s overall page also provides additional guidance.

Organizations Related to Budgeting

The American Association for Budget and Program Analysis (AABPA) has links to other budget sites, including the budgets of Federal agencies.

The Association for Budgeting and Financial Management (ABFM), a section of the American Society of Public Administration (ASPA), is dedicated to promoting wider recognition of the importance of budgeting and financial management in public policy and management decisions.  ABFM has links to state, local, and city budget sites.

The National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO) has materials specific to state and local budget analysts.

The National Academy of Public Administration has reports and studies on Federal management issues that may be relevant for budgeting consideration,

The Association of Government Accountants (AGA) manages the Certified Government Financial Manager® (CGFM®)  professional certification in the skills and special knowledge required of “government financial managers.  It covers governmental accounting, auditing, financial reporting, internal controls and budgeting at the federal, state and local levels.”

The Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA) is focused on accounting and finance work.  Their site provide access to conferences, training, and other resources for those interested in state and local finance or financial management in the Federal government.  “The mission is to enhance and promote the professional management of governmental financial resources by identifying, developing, and advancing fiscal strategies, policies, and practices for the public benefit.”

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) budgeting materials provide information on international budget related issues.